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Published: 21 novembre 2022 (3 semaines ago)

English Phonology An Introduction Heinz J Giegerich Pdf 14 __HOT__

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English Phonology An Introduction Heinz J Giegerich Pdf 14

in western standard arabic, the system of morpheme boundaries has roughly the same effect as the discourse segmentation used in english. each grammatical word and each word of the lexicon is regarded as unit, so that words can be differentiated only at the sentence level. the boundary between two words is marked by a segment that splits a word into two meaning units. the segment is meaningful to a speaker and he can recognize it from a word. they are typically either phonemes or a morpheme. of course, this system only works for words that do not contain consonants. for full words, a phonetic system of word boundary markers and a word segmentation system are required.[4] the english segmentation system is usually based on phonemes and is obviously by no means universal. generally, english as a synthetic language has large and relatively stable phonological units such as syllables, and speakers are able to recognize the boundaries between them. in syntactic terms, however, a word is a unit that contains the basic building blocks of sentences. syntactically, what divides a word from the next is the word-unit, which can be any co-occurring grammatical word or an ungrammatical phonological word. word units can have different lengths, even within the same word.[5] we shall return to this aspect at the end of the paper.
we turn to phonological word structure now.

words and sentences are basic units within a language. a sentence (that is, a complete discourse unit such as a request or a statement or a question) is a unit which reflects a complete task for the speaker and is addressed to the addressee.
the word is the basic unit within a sentence. the word is the smallest unit that the addressee can understand, and which reflects a meaning that is communicable to the addressee.

a word with a stressed syllable ending in a high-velar consonant cluster is frequently analyzed as if that syllable were not stressed. english phonology has several different instances of this kind of analysis. for example, the word [tune] has a stressed syllable tune, but also the stressed syllable [n] in the word [natural] or the stressed syllable tone in the word [nation]. and this is not the only case: in many native english words, a stressed syllable immediately preceding another stressed syllable, has an unstressed vowel, as in the word version. of course, the analysis of final unstressed vowels is not limited to the above words, but it is a common feature of english.
to some extent any phonological system is strongly influenced by the structure of the words and of their lexical items. as such it is a complex set of concepts, the internal representations of which are highly intertwined and thus quite elusive. it has long been realized that different stylistic or social factors could alter the set of phonological regularities that a language displays, but there has been no systematic and widely accepted theory of how this happens. the perception of word structure as such is almost a priori, and has to a large extent been described by dictionaries and other lexicographic works. the main problems are to find a description of the actual representations of word structure that are employed and a reliable way of comparing them. some of the underlying principles that govern word structure in the natural languages are rather well established. such principles are, for example, the manner of articulation, which seems to be a rather universal parameter within the human vocal apparatus. within the set of articulatory regularities the words of a language are (mostly) organised. the set of words articulated in exactly the same way is organized as a sequence. the parameters of this sequence are typically the consistency of the articulatory gestures, their duration, the speed of the production and the place of articulation.