History Of Political Thought From Plato To Marx Pdf Download BETTER
History Of Political Thought From Plato To Marx Pdf Download
for the bulk of the 20th century, ideological accounts of politics were restricted to theories of national politics and states. in the latter half of the 20th century, as more and more national political systems suffered their problems, many new forms of community politics began to emerge. tribal, communal, or religiously-rooted are all words that could apply to these new institutional forms, which resemble the older nation-states but also differ from them in that they are not based upon liberal concepts of individuality and liberty. because of their lack of systematic legal codes, many such communities- that could be called post-national polities- are community-based and meaning-laden, while at the same time compatible with a notion of individual freedom. if the core study of political theory today is to be the systematic analysis of power as a force in its relation with different groups in society, the study of these forms of polity, their dynamic processes and their success or failure, provide the subject matter for a new generation of the political theorist.
it was in the 1960s, at the peak of the cold war, that the influential marxist-inspired canadian political philosopher, luce irigaray published her major text, les etrangers. conceived as an extended lecture course, the text is perhaps better described as a lecture that is delivered as a lecture, a complex dynamic of body language and gesture that shape its meaning and its circulation. seen also as a major treatise on certain issues of gender and sexual difference, les etrangers was also read as a post-structuralist study of gender and sexuality. it made the point that all knowledgethat are constructed are never fixed. this is due to the fact that all knowledgethat are constructed, that is male knowledgethat, are also subjected to systematic attacks and revision by feminist knowledgethat, namely, women.
3. it is by no means easy to disentangle the heritages of political theory from the ideological and evaluative structures they reflect. they are present on three levels: external, historical and internal. first, political ideas may be informed by or express ideals that are established on an external level as abstract, universal or absolute ideals. take for example the ideal of a monarchy, a republic or a democracy, all of them uncontested ideals. an external ideal itself may, or may not, shape social organization. it is by no means always the case that ideals are derived from a social reality, be it the state, culture or economy. another example is the ideal of freedom, or liberty, the essence of which is at the same time constitutive of the subjects of any state. in either case, these ideals are not part of a political theory, or political theory a mere artifact of the past. ideological analyses can be used to evaluate present social arrangements.
the second level at which the heritages of political theory may be perceived is historical. they reflect a set of norms or values that dominated a specific period. in a sense, this historical character may be present in the very notion of political theory, just as the canon of humanist thought, of certain conceptions of the good and the right, even with the rise of positivism. however, ideology is not just history, or a reflection of the past. on the one hand, it is a product of particular societies, and on the other, it is also a product of the intellectual milieux that produce it. as such, the historical dimension of ideology is both external and internal. on the external level, ideology is created as a social product that reflects the overarching political order and cultural values of a particular time and place. external idealisms are as valid a part of political theory as external political theories. but on the internal level, as in the case of internal political theories, one is talking not about real people, but about problems of being. a political theory that is not internally ideological is not a political theory at all, but a mere abstract product of the scholar’s volition.