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Figure 3: Percent reduction in shear stress due to Vertical load on a single brake test basis. This graph demonstrates the percent reduction in shear stress due to the vertical load of 30% and 60% applied. To view the animations, open the file Shell Bisar 3 0 in a web-browser and open the « figures » section.
Shell Bisar design and analysis software provides a new approach in which the existing designs of above- and below-grade pavement elements are combined to maximize the benefits of each. Like the previously mentioned model-based design approaches, the design and analysis software provides a means of applying the fundamental design philosophy of accounting for the vertical and horizontal forces in the pavement by incorporating them into the design of the pavement elements.
The load used in the multi-layer linear analysis is a combination of the point loads and the sagging loads (density not used) that are specified by the construction project engineer for the base course and the various structural layer materials. The structural layer materials are identified on the base course design by a layer index (e.g. for design layer B00, see BISAR 2.0, the indices for the structural layers are also B00). The thickness of the structural layer material is also identified on the base course design. Soil is specified on the road foundation design by a density of 1000 kg/m3, and the structural layer is considered to have a density of 2400 kg/m3, and the subgrade is considered to be 0.0 kg/m3. After the point and sagging loads for the respective structural layer materials are specified, the point and sagging loads of the structural layers (with respect to the road base) are then transferred to the subgrade soil using the structural layer material density as a weighting factor.
It is estimated that the Shell formula could have saved T. 20 million if the 1,000 tonnes instead of the standard 500 tonnes of materials for the outer layer of each section had been saved. And these savings continued for each successive section.
There are three different models that are used to support the interpretation of these results from BISAR. These models are the Linear-Elastic, Linear-Inelastic and Linear-Viscoelastic models. The Linear-Elastic model analyses the response of soil and subgrade materials, whilst the Linear-Inelastic model considers the same materials in a stretched state in relation to their own stresses (before stretching) and the stresses that are applied to them in the pavement. The Linear-Viscoelastic model is based on the application of one or more rubber ball joints to interlayer joints to decouple the soil layers for the purpose of analysing each soil layer in isolation.
In the first sequence of the study, BISAR software’s crack pattern and microcrack analysis (as described in above) techniques were applied to a concrete prism-like beam to explore the possibility of the failure mode from the microcracks. To carry out this analysis, the prism was divided into three portions as shown in figure 1. The stresses in the first portion were introduced by the use of a pre-defined displacement in that layer and were computed, while the stress distributions in the second and third portions were obtained simply by superimposing the second and third portions over the stresses in the first portion. The stress
I think that using the BISAR software crack pattern and microcrack analysis technique, the damage of the pavement resulting from traffic load and temperature can be simulated. It is worth mentioning that the software can determine the mesh size automatically, this being limited by the dimensions of the specimen in a step by step way. The software can also calculate the crack size distribution, cracks width and the matrix stiffness from the obtained mesh. This last feature is very useful to analyze the pavement structure.